متابعات

كيف سقطت مدن الحضارة الاولى في التاريخ

متابعات العراق في التاريخ

# سلام طه

maxresdefault

 

في باطن ارض العراق الجالي، ترقد  أطلال الحضارة الأولى في التاريخ .

في هذه الحلقة، نسافر إلى الماضي البعيد للغاية لننظر إلى السومريين. الذين اخترعوا  الكتابة والرياضيات ، وبنوا بعضًا من أقدم المدن التي شهدها العالم على الإطلاق. تعرف على سر أصولهم ، وتعلم كيف نشأوا من القرى الاولى الى الامبراطوريات العظيمة،  لتشكيل الأساس لجميع مجتمعاتنا الحديثة. مع الأساطير والأمثال وحتى بعض الموسيقى السومرية المعاد إنشاؤها ،ارتحل الى حيث بداية التاريخ، واكتشف كيف سقطت اولى الحضارات الانسانية على الاطلاق.

 

 

 

 

 

الاعمال الفنية الافتراضية : المهندس قيس يعقوب اسحق

 

المراجع - Episode 8 :

 

 

Black, Jeremy. The Literature of Ancient Sumer. 2004.  

 

Bottéro, Jean. Everyday Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Translated by Antonia Nevill. John Hopkins UP, 2001. 

 

Cooper, Jerrold S. Sumerian and Akkadian in Sumer and Akkad. Orientalia NOVA SERIES, Vol. 42 (1973), pp. 239-246. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/43079390.pdf?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents 

 

Crawford, Harriet. Sumer and the Sumerians. Cambridge University Press, 2004.  

 Ur: City of the Moon God. Bloomsbury, 2015. 

 

Cullen et al. ‘Climate change and the collapse of the Akkadian empire: Evidence from the deep sea.’ Geology; April 2000; v. 28; no. 4; p. 379–382 https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/~peter/site/Papers_files/Cullen.et.al.2000.pdf 

 

Della Valle, Pietro. The travels of Sig. Pietro della Valle, a noble Roman, into East-India and Arabia Deserta. https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/eebo/A65012.0001.001/1:5.11?rgn=div2;view=fulltext 

 

Jacobsen T, Adams RM. Salt and Silt in Ancient Mesopotamian Agriculture: Progressive changes in soil salinity and sedimentation contributed to the breakup of past civilizations. Science, 1958. http://faculty.bennington.edu/~kwoods/classes/enviro-hist/salt%20and%20silt%20in%20mesopotamia.pdf  

Kramer, Samuel Noah. The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character. University of Chicago Press, 1971.  

. History Begins at Sumer: Thirty-Nine Firsts in Recorded History. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988. 

 

Leick, Gwendolyn. Mesopotamia: The Invention of the City. Allen Lane, 2001. 

 

Liverani, Mario. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. Routledge, 4 Dec 2013. 

 

Maeda, Tohru. Royal Inscriptions of Lugalzagesi and Sargon. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/orient/40/0/40_3/_pdf  

 

McIntosh, Jane R. (2017). Mesopotamia and the Rise of Civilization: History, Documents, and Key Questions. 

 

Mithen, Steven. Thirst: For Water and Power in the Ancient World. Harvard UP, 2012.  

 

Oppenheim, A. Leo. Letters from Mesopotamia: Official, Business, and Private Letters on Clay Tablets from Two Millennia. University of Chicago Press, 1967. https://oi.uchicago.edu/sites/oi.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/shared/docs/letters_from_mesopotamia.pdf  

 

Ravinell, Alberto and Green, Whitney. The Storm-god in the Ancient Near East. Eisenbrauns, 2003. 

 

Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq. Penguin, 1992. 

 

Silver, Minna. ‘Climate Change, the Mardu Wall, and the Fall of Ur in Fortune and Misfortune in the Ancient Near East.’ In Fortune and Misfortune in the Ancient Near East : Proceedings of the 60th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale Warsaw, 21-25 July 2014. 2016.  https://www.academia.edu/30667315/Climate_Change_the_Mardu_Wall_and_the_Fall_of_Ur_in_Fortune_and_Misfortune_in_the_Ancient_Near_East_http_www.eisenbrauns.com_item_RAI60 

 

Soltysiak, Arkadiusz. ‘Physical anthropology and the “Sumerian problem”’. Studies in Historical Anthropology, vol. 4:2004[2006], pp. 145–158.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271518276_Physical_anthropology_and_the_Sumerian_problem/link/54cb44b00cf22f98631e624a/download 

 

Taylor, J. E. ‘Notes on the Ruins of Muqeyer.’ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. 15, pp. 260–276, 1855. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25228658?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents 

The Sumerian World. Edited by Harriet Crawford. 2012. 

 

Toynbee, Arnold J. A Study of History. 1934. https://discoversocialsciences.files.wordpress.com/2017/08/toynbee-study-of-history.pdf 

Wolkstein, Diane; Kramer, Samuel Noah (1983). Inanna: Queen of Heaven and Earth: Her Stories and Hymns from Sumer

Comments powered by CComment

Lock full review www.8betting.co.uk 888 Bookmaker